The fundamentals of 3D include polygons, vertices and lines. When three or more points are connecting with edges they produce a polygon. When there is more than one Polygon joined together they become a Mesh.
Polygon Points Edges
Above I have used Cinema 4D to replicate Polygons, Points and Edges. When the Polygons are connected together they can create any Meshes from simple to complex.
Polygons can be used to manipulate and design simple shapes, as 3D objects such as Spheres like above, or used for complex Meshes for characters or environments.
Here is an example of a game character I found while researching complex objects created with Polygons. I found these examples fascinating as it shows the character mould and mesh showing the stages of creating.
Surface and Solid Modelling.
There are two types of 3D Software, Surface and Solid Modelling. Solid Works is a name of piece of modelling software, mostly used by Engineers and Architecture that test the structure and integrity.
This is a structure of a bridge, these are the points to test the strength to make sure it is able to hold and stay into position. They will undergo several tests to test its stability and strength by adding weight and different pressure.
These are types of surface software;
- 3D Studio Max
- Cinema 4D
- Sketch Up
Video Game 3D
Here is an example of a 3d Model of a video game with and without texture. To use 3d modelling is expensive, you cannot use too many Polygons causing crashing or difficulty. Films are pre-rendered and video games are rendered.
Game developers are challenged to consider the polygons use so it is a balance between good quality but playable or it will crash.
This is a character for a video game; this appears to be a reference sheet where the stages of making are evident. On the left are the mesh before it is moulded and the finishing result.
Video games are not the same as films as it is interactive. Video games render as you play because the whole model has been made and need to be processed. Films can have more details as it is pre-rendered where items can be higher in polygons with better appearance.
Consoles are remade frequently so that they are able to process more polygons in games, making better games with details without crashing. Better hardware means better graphics and gameplay resulting in quicker rendering and more complex designs being included.
3D and Augmented Reality.
Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment where elements are computer generated sensory input such as sound, graphics or video.
This will become more frequent in the future, as currently it is an idea more than a product ready to be placed on mainstream markets. Using augmented reality would mediate reality, modifying our environments and even replacing the real world with a simulated one. Apps on phones and business have already attempted to use or incorporate augmented reality to sell their products but it is limited as of yet.
Pepsi Max recently experimented with a new augmented reality campaign. Leveraging stunt-like experiences like a prowling tiger, a meteor crashing, an alien tentacle grabbing people on the street, the bus stop window serves as a realistic screen to bring the scenarios to life. They most likely created this by using advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer or T.V vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulated. Artificial information about the environment can then be overlaid on a screen on the real world.Since then other companies have been following suit to popularise Augmented Reality to creatively add an experiential component to their marketing program. Another example is LEGO’s “Digital Box” which uses augmented reality to showcase a 3-D model of the LEGO set by scanning the box.
3D Printing is achieved by making a virtual design of the object you want to create. The CAD File (Computer Aided Design) file is created using a 3D modelling application or with a 3D scanner. A 3D scanner is able to replicate a digital copy of an object.
Companies such as Microsoft and Google have already enabled their hardware to preform 3D, for example Microsoft Kinext. In the near future creating real objects into 3D models will become as easy as taking a picture or as owning a paper printer in a home today.
The image above represents the most commonly used technology used for 3D printing, the Stereolilthography (SLA). This technology employs a cat of liquid ultraviolet and laser to build the Digital Object into layers one at a time. For each layer, the laser beam traces a cross-section of the part pattern on the surface of the liquid resin. It then solidifies the pattern traced onto the resin and joins it to the layer below.
Purposes of 3D Printing
There are many advantages to using 3D printing, such as:
- New Shapes and Structures (That will be either very difficult or impossible to create handmade.)
- Accessibility (Designs can be sent over the world and printed off for anyone to receive in an instance) (This would be beneficial for long Space flights, who may need to regenerate new parts which would be possible with a 3D Printer.)
- Quick Production
- Better Quality
- Less Waste
- Cheap Manufacturing
3D Printing had even begun to help with bone replacements, which is useful for emergencies with its quick production rate. A 3D printer-created a lower jaw to fit into an 83-year old woman’s face. The transplant was carried out in June in the Netherlands, with the implant being made from titanium powder; heated and fused together by a laser, one layer at a time.